Astro Coffee

Suggested papers for
Tue, Dec 11, 2018, Thu, Dec 13, 2018, and Fri, Dec 14, 2018 at 11 am

12 Dec 2018

Peak star formation efficiency and no missing baryons in massive spirals

It is commonly believed that galaxies use, throughout the Hubble time, a very small fraction of the baryons associated to their dark matter halos to form stars. This so-called low "star formation efficiency" $f_\star\equiv M_\star/f_{\rm b} M_{\rm halo}$, where $f_{\rm b}\equivΩ_{\rm b}/Ω_{\rm c}$ is the cosmological baryon fraction, is expected to reach its peak at nearly $L^\ast$ (at efficiency $\approx 20\%$) and decline steeply at lower and higher masses. We have tested this usin...

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11 Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP): IV. Characterizing substructures and interactions in disks around multiple star systems

To characterize the substructures induced in protoplanetary disks by the interaction between stars in multiple systems, we study the $1.25\,$mm continuum and the $^{12}$CO$(J=2-1)$ spectral line emission of the triple systems HT Lup and AS 205, at scales of $\approx 5\,$au, as part of the 'Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project' (DSHARP). In the continuum emission, we find two symmetric spiral arms in the disk around AS 205 N, with pitch angle of $14^\circ$, while the so...

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10 Dec 2018

The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP): I. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, and Overview

We introduce the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP), one of the initial Large Programs conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The primary goal of DSHARP is to find and characterize substructures in the spatial distributions of solid particles for a sample of 20 nearby protoplanetary disks, using very high resolution (0.035 arcsec, or 5 au FWHM) observations of their 240 GHz (1.25 mm) continuum emission. These data provide a first hom...

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28 Nov 2018

Searching for Dark Matter Sub-structure with HAWC

Simulations of dark matter show a discrepancy between the expected number of Galactic dark matter sub-halos and how many have been optically observed. Some of these unseen satellites may exist as dark dwarf galaxies: sub-halos like dwarf galaxies with no luminous counterpart. Assuming WIMP dark matter, it may be possible to detect these unseen sub-halos from gamma-ray signals originating from dark matter annihilation. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is a very high energy (...

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30 Nov 2018

GWTC-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing Runs

We present the results from three gravitational-wave searches for coalescing compact binaries with component masses above 1$\mathrm{M}_\odot$ during the first and second observing runs of the Advanced gravitational-wave detector network. During the first observing run (O1), from September $12^\mathrm{th}$, 2015 to January $19^\mathrm{th}$, 2016, gravitational waves from three binary black hole mergers were detected. The second observing run (O2), which ran from November $30^\mathrm{th}$, 2016 ...

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10 Dec 2018

Stellar Proper Motions in the Orion Nebula Cluster

The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest site of ongoing massive star formation, which allows us to study the kinematics and dynamics of the region in detail and constrain star formation theories. Using HST ACS/WFPC2/WFC3IR and Keck II NIRC2 data, we have measured the proper motions of 701 stars within a $\sim6'\times6'$ field of view around the center of the ONC. We have found more than 10 escaping star candidates, concentrated predominantly at the core of the cluster. The proper...

10 Dec 2018

The enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry mission - eXTP

In this paper we present the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry mission - eXTP. eXTP is a space science mission designed to study fundamental physics under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. The mission aims at determining the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, measuring effects of QED, and understanding the dynamics of matter in strong-field gravity. In addition to investigating fundamental physics, eXTP will be a very powerful observatory for astrophy...

11 Dec 2018

Detection of the Missing Baryons toward the Sightline of H1821+643

Based on constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, the baryon content of the high-redshift Universe can be precisely determined. However, at low redshift, about one-third of the baryons remain unaccounted for, which poses the long-standing missing baryon problem. The missing baryons are believed to reside in large-scale filaments in the form of warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). In this work, we employ a novel stacking approach to explore the hot phases ...

04 Dec 2018

The preeminence of ethnic diversity in scientific collaboration

Bedoor K. AlShebli, Talal Rahwan, Wei Lee Woon

Inspired by the social and economic benefits of diversity, we analyze over 9 million papers and 6 million scientists to study the relationship between research impact and five classes of diversity: ethnicity, discipline, gender, affiliation, and academic age. Using randomized baseline models, we establish the presence of homophily in ethnicity, gender and affiliation. We then study the effect of diversity on scientific impact, as reflected in citations. Remarkably, of the classes considered, eth...

5 Dec 2018

Characterizing and Improving the Data Reduction Pipeline for the Keck OSIRIS Integral Field Spectrograph

OSIRIS is a near-infrared (1.0--2.4 $μ$m) integral field spectrograph operating behind the adaptive optics system at Keck Observatory, and is one of the first lenslet-based integral field spectrographs. Since its commissioning in 2005, it has been a productive instrument, producing nearly half the laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) papers on Keck. The complexity of its raw data format necessitated a custom data reduction pipeline (DRP) delivered with the instrument in order to iterativ...

27 Nov 2018

Spatially resolved rotation of the broad-line region of a quasar at sub-parsec scale

The broadening of atomic emission lines by high-velocity motion of gas near accreting supermassive black holes is an observational hallmark of quasars. Observations of broad emission lines could potentially constrain the mechanism for transporting gas inwards through accretion disks or outwards through winds. The size of this broad-line region has been estimated by measuring the light travel time delay between the variable nuclear continuum and the emission lines - a method known as reverberat...

Updated 2018/12/14 11:29:47